Cell cycle regulation is of pivotal importance for plant growth and development. Although plant cell division shares basic mechanisms with all eukaryotes, plants have evolved novel molecules orchestrating the cell cycle. Some regulatory proteins, such as cyclins and inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases, are particularly numerous in plants, possibly reflecting the remarkable ability of plants to modulate their postembryonic development. Many plant cells also can continue DNA replication in the absence of mitosis, a process known as endoreduplication, causing polyploidy. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms that regulate cell division and endoreduplication and we discuss our understanding, albeit very limited, on how the cell cycle is integrated with plant development.