Two simple, rapid and efficient protocols for theregeneration of transformed tetraploid lines ofalfalfa (Medicago falcata L.) have beendeveloped and compared. Leaf explants fromembryogenic lines 47/1-150 and 47/1-5 were inoculatedwith Agrobacterium tumefaciens containingconstructs carrying the nptII selectable markergene and promoter:gusA gene fusions under thecontrol of the CaMV 35S or Arabidopsis cdc2a,CycB1 and CycA2 promoters. In the firstregeneration system (the MSH system), inoculated leafexplants were incubated on MS medium supplemented with2,4-D and kinetin and then subcultured onto plantgrowth regulator-free MS medium in order to inducedirect somatic embryogenesis. In the secondregeneration system (the B5h system), the inoculatedexplants were incubated on B5h medium to induceindirect production of somatic embryos viaembryogenic callus. In both systems, an effectivekanamycin selection regime was employed and wasmaintained when the embryos were subcultured onto arecovery medium (Boi2Y) to promote further embryodevelopment. The use of Boi2Y medium was particularlyimportant for shortening the regeneration time andpromoting a higher frequency of healthy plantletproduction from the somatic embryos. The maturesomatic embryos were finally transferred to plantgrowth regulator-free MS medium for plantletformation. Transgenic plantlets were produced within10–14 weeks in the MSH system and 12–16 weeks in theB5h system. The MSH system appears to be the fastesttransformation system reported for leguminous speciesto date. Confirmation of transformation was obtainedusing a re-callusing assay on kanamycin and subsequentSouthern blot hybridisation and PCR analysis. Theability to induce expression of GUS activity in leafexplants containing the cell division cycle genepromoter:gusA constructs by 2,4-D treatment alsoproved to be a reliable indicator of transformation.