Self-Incompatibility (SI) is a genetically controlled mechanism that prevents self-fertilisation and thus encourages outbreeding and genetic diversity. During pollination, most SI systems utilise cell-cell recognition to reject incompatible pollen. Mechanistically, one of the best-studied SI systems is that of Papaver rhoeas (poppy), which involves the interaction between the two S-determinants, a stigma-expressed secreted protein (PrsS) and a pollen-expressed plasma-membrane localised protein (PrpS). This interaction is the critical step in determining acceptance of compatible pollen or rejection of incompatible pollen. Cognate PrpS-PrsS interaction triggers a signalling network causing rapid growth arrest and eventually programmed cell death (PCD) in incompatible pollen. In this review, we provide an overview of recent advances in our understanding of the major components involved in the SI-induced PCD (SI-PCD). In particular, we focus on the importance of SI-induced intracellular acidification and consequences for protein function, and the regulation of soluble inorganic pyrophosphatase (Pr-p26.1) activity by post-translational modification. We also discuss attempts at the identification of protease(s) involved in the SI-PCD process. Finally, we outline future opportunities made possible by the functional transfer of the P. rhoeas SI system to Arabidopsis.