Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AMs) between plants and soil fungi are widespread symbioses with a major role in soil nutrient uptake. In this study we investigated the induction of root cortical cell division during AM colonization by combining morphometric and gene expression analyses with promoter activation and protein localization studies of the cell-plate-associated exocytic marker TPLATE. Our results show that TPLATE promoter is activated in colonized cells of the root cortex where we also observed the appearance of cells that are half the size of the surrounding cells. Furthermore, TPLATE-green fluorescent protein recruitment to developing cell plates highlighted ectopic cell division events in the inner root cortex during early AM colonization. Lastly, transcripts of TPLATE, KNOLLE and Cyclinlike 1 (CYC1) are all upregulated in the same context, alongside endocytic markers Adaptor-Related Protein complex 2 alpha 1 subunit (AP2A1) and Clathrin Heavy Chain 2 (CHC2), known to be active during cell plate formation. This pattern of gene expression was recorded in wild-type Medicago truncatula roots, but not in a common symbiotic signalling pathway mutant where fungal colonization is blocked at the epidermal level. Altogether, these results suggest the activation of cell-division-related mechanisms by AM hosts during the accommodation of the symbiotic fungus.