Previously we have shown that overexpression of the heterodimeric E2Fa-DPa transcription factor in Arabidopsis thaliana results in ectopic cell division, increased endoreduplication, and an early arrest in development. To gain a better insight into the phenotypic behavior of E2Fa-DPa transgenic plants and to identify E2Fa-DPa target genes, a transcriptomic microarray analysis was performed. Out of 4,390 unique genes, a total of 188 had a twofold or more up- (84) or down-regulated (104) expression level in E2Fa-DPa transgenic plants compared to wild-type lines. Detailed promoter analysis allowed the identification of novel E2Fa-DPa target genes, mainly involved in DNA replication. Secondarily induced genes encoded proteins involved in cell wall biosynthesis, transcription and signal transduction or had an unknown function. A large number of metabolic genes were modified as well, among which, surprisingly, many genes were involved in nitrate assimilation. Our data suggest that the growth arrest observed upon E2Fa-DPa overexpression results at least partly from a nitrogen drain to the nucleotide synthesis pathway, causing decreased synthesis of other nitrogen compounds, such as amino acids and storage proteins.