Plant roots are important for a wide range of processes, including nutrient and water uptake, anchoring and mechanical support, storage functions, and as the major interface with the soil environment. Several small signalling peptides and receptor kinases have been shown to affect primary root growth, but very little is known about their role in lateral root development. In this context, the CLE family, a group of small signalling peptides that has been shown to affect a wide range of developmental processes, were the focus of this study. Here, the expression pattern during lateral root initiation for several CLE family members is explored and to what extent CLE1, CLE4, CLE7, CLE26, and CLE27, which show specific expression patterns in the root, are involved in regulating root architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana is assessed. Using chemically synthesized peptide variants, it was found that CLE26 plays an important role in regulating A. thaliana root architecture and interacts with auxin signalling. In addition, through alanine scanning and in silico structural modelling, key residues in the CLE26 peptide sequence that affect its activity are pinpointed. Finally, some interesting similarities and differences regarding the role of CLE26 in regulating monocot root architecture are presented.