D-type cyclins are believed to regulate the onset of cell division upon mitogenic signaling. Here, the isolation is reported of a new D-type cyclin gene (CYCD4;1) of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. during a two-hybrid screen using the cyclin-dependent kinase CDC2aAt as bait. Transcription of CYCD4;1 can be induced by sucrose. The co-regulated expression of CYCD4;1 and CDC2aAt in starved suspension cultures upon mitogenic stimulation indicates that the formation of a complex between these two partners is important for the resumption of cell division activity. By in-situ hybridizations CYCD4;1 was shown to be expressed during vascular tissue development, embryogenesis, and formation of lateral root primordia. Expression during the latter process suggests that the induced expression of D-type cyclins by mitogenic stimuli might be one of the rate-limiting events for the initiation of lateral roots.