Although endoreduplication is common in plants, little is known about the mechanisms regulating this process. Here, we report the patterns of endoreduplication at the cellular level in the shoot apex of Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. plants grown under short-day conditions. We show that polyploidy is developmentally established in the pith, maturing leaves, and stipules. To investigate the role of the cell cycle genes CDC2aAt, CDC2bAt, CYCB1;1, and CKS1At in the process of endoreduplication, in-situ hybridizations were performed on the vegetative shoot apices. Expression of CDC2aAt, CDC2bAt, and CYCB1;1 was restricted to mitotically dividing cells. In contrast, CKS1At expression was present in both mitotic and endoreduplicating tissues. Our data indicate that CDC2aAt, CDC2bAt, and CYCB1;1 only operate during mitotic divisions, whereas CKS1At may play a role in both the mitotic and endoreduplication cycle.