CLE peptides are potentially involved in nodule organ development and in the autoregulation of nodulation (AON), a systemic process that restricts nodule number. A genome-wide survey of CLE peptide genes in the soybean glycine max genome resulted in the identification of 39 GmCLE genes, the majority of which have not yet been annotated. qRT-PCR analysis indicated two different nodulation-related CLE expression patterns, one linked with nodule primordium development and a new one linked with nodule maturation. Moreover, two GmCLE gene pairs, encoding group-III CLE peptides that were previously shown to be involved in AON, had a transient expression pattern during nodule development, were induced by the essential nodulation hormone cytokinin, and one pair was also slightly induced by the addition of nitrate. Hence, our data support the hypothesis that group-III CLE peptides produced in the nodules are involved in primordium homeostasis and intertwined in activating AON, but not in sustaining it.